Published articles

A Low Cost Framework designed for Monitoring Applications, based on Wireless Sensor Networks

authors: Bujdei C. & Moraru S.A.

abstract: Even the wireless communication is considered to offer many advantages, compared to wired communication, there are still many constraints to pass over. The domain of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) has been researched for many years, designed, developed and optimized in many directions, but even so there are just a few real life implementations.  One major obstacle remains the cost of such a network. The cost of a single node device is considered to be high, which multiplied with the total number of nodes necessary for the network, results to become very high.

Since our research project supposed to design and implement a system for monitoring of the indoor ambient conditions using a WSN, we have decided to create a specific framework, more suitable for our requirements, with minimum cost and having a general format. The general format will allow us to use the framework, with none or minimum modifications, and for other types of monitoring applications in the future. The hardware part of the framework has been minimized as cost by using Seeeduino Stalker v2 and XBee Series 2 components. Both hardware and software parts have been designed and developed having always in mind the necessity of the general character of the solution.

A large scale real life implementation of a monitoring system using this framework, under development in this moment, will allow us to establish better its performances and where is necessary and possible to optimize it.

poster: link

publication year: 2012

publication details: Optim 2012, The 13th International Conference on Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment,  pp. 1211-1220, ISBN: 978-1-4673-1653-8, Editor Transilvania University of Brasov, may 2012

A design for a network end node, based on Arduino and XBee

authors: Bujdei C. & Moraru S.A.

abstract: We needed a design for a network end node which to be used for implementing a wireless sensors network, with the role of making intelligent an office building. The automation process supposes to monitor different ambient parameters values and also to control the existent systems (e.g. air-conditioning, heating, ventilation). This paper presents the research work done for determining the best suitable node design necessary for our purpose, the node device developed as a result of this research, the tests accomplished with it and possibilities of optimization. The main characteristics of the proposed node design are: easily implementable at a low cost, modular, could be easily adapted for different types of applications and it has a small physical size.

keywords: wireless sensors network, network node design, Arduino, XBee, building automation

poster: link

publication year: 2011

publication details: DAAAM 2011, The 22nd International World Symposium, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 369-370, ISBN: 978-3-901509-83-4, Editor Branko Katalinic, november 2011

Ensuring comfort in office buildings – Designing a KNX monitoring and control system

authors: Bujdei C. & Moraru S.A.

abstract: As a first stage task, this paper presents the study on what represents and how it is possible to ensure the indoor office comfort, which are the most important types of comfort (thermal, visual, acoustic, air quality, etc.) and how each of them could be analyzed (characterized). Few of them have a mathematical interpretation, more or less precise, which permits to make estimations. All types of comfort could be described using their characteristic parameters. When it is necessary specific building installations react to correct the parameters values, using different predefined methods, for establishing in this way a higher comfort level. Usually it is not possible to ensure the same comfort level for all occupants, due to the differences which exist between them (metabolism, activities, clothing, etc.). After the study presentation, it is described the design of a KNX automation system, dedicated for ensuring the comfort into an office/classroom space, which is able to control the lighting, heating and air conditioning.

keywords: indoor comfort, thermal comfort, PMV index, KNX, BMS, WSN, smart building, productivity

power point presentation: link

publication year: 2011

publication details: IE 2011, The 7th International Conference On Intelligent Environments, pag. 222-229, ISBN: 978-0-7695-4452-6, IEEE Computer Society, july 2011

Layered Node Architecture to be used in Wireless Sensor Networks

authors: Bujdei C., Moraru S.A. & Ungureanu D.

abstract: One direction of our research work was to design a proper architecture for the wireless sensor network (WSN) notes. Each network node should ensure a set of functionalities conform to the requirements of our system (a building monitoring and control system – smart building). In order not to disturb the people’s activities and to avoid a visual discomfort, it is also required that the physical size of the nodes be as small as possible within our system, without affecting the functionalities. A small size will also ensure an easier installation procedure of the entire network. Some of
functionalities could be common for each node, or particular, depending on the node’s main goal. A clear separation of the functionalities is necessary and it should be possible to implement using a layered architecture; each layer ensures a specific functionality or similar functionalities. This type of architecture ensures the best usage of the physical space and allows reconfiguration of the node structure as it’s needed, by combining different dedicated layers. The hardware architecture is supported by the software application installed on the node’s microcontroller. A single autoconfigurable version of the software application is necessary for all nodes, regardless of the node structure. New dedicated layers, implementing new functionalities, could be developed and used in the current node architecture.

keywords: wireless sensor networks, node architecture, layers, plug & play, modular

publication year: 2010

publication details: KBO 2010, The 16th International Conference The Knowledge-Based Organization, Applied Technical Sciences and Advanced Military Technologies, pag. 370-375, ISSN: 1843-6722, Sibiu, Romania, november 2010

Wireless Communication Standards for Intelligent Buildings

authors: Bujdei C. & Moraru S.A.

abstract: For our main research project we had to design and develop a monitoring and control system which, using a wireless sensor network (WSN), to make a building to become ‘smart’ (automated). One of the goals of this development is to choose the best available solution for wireless communication. In this paper it is presented a comparison between different possibilities of implementing the wireless communication inside the WSN network and in final it is decided which is the best solution which should be implemented (considering the advantages offered and the requirements of our system: low energy consumption, low latency, large signal range, low data rate, cost, easy implementing, etc.).

keywords: DASH7, ISO 18000-7, ZigBee, wireless communication, smart building

publication year: 2010

publication details: DAAAM 2010, Annals of DAAAM for 2010 & Proceedings of the 21st International DAAAM Symposium, pag. 489-490, ISBN 978-3-901509-73-5, ISSN 1726-9679, Editor B. Katalinic, Published by DAAAM International, Vienna, Austria 2010

‘Old’ articles

Use Wireless Sensor Networks for Patients in Home  Monitoring – Data Flow

authors: Bujdei C., Moraru S.A., Dan S., Sisak F. & Vulpe A. D.

abstract: In  this  paper  it  will  be  described  the  data  flow between  different  components  of  a  system  dedicated for monitoring  the  patients  at  home.  The  system  use  a  wireless sensors network (wsn)  for record  the parameters of the patient (pulse, blood oxigen  level) and  transmit  the recorded data  for being  stored  into  a  database.  Since  it  is a  large  amount  of recorded  data  the  speed  of  transmiting  the  data  throught  the system  is  a  very  important aspect.  The  consumed  energy  is proportional with  the quantity of data  transported. Because of this the consume of energy is  taken  in consideration especially into the wsn which should run properly as long as possible. The security of  data  is  a  secondary  aspect  which  is  taken  in consideration.

keywords: wireless  sensors  network,  patient,  monitor,  data flow.

publication year: 2008

publication details: DAAAM 2008, Annals of DAAAM for 2007 & Proceedings of the 19th International DAAAM Symposium, pag. 175-176, ISSN 1726-9679, ISBN 978-3-901509-68-1, Editor B. Katalinic, Published by DAAAM International, Vienna, Austria 2008

Monitoring of Energy Consumption in Industrial Environment using Integrated Software System

authors: Moraru S.A., Bujdei C., Pelcz A., Sisak F. & Perniu L.

abstract: Today many industrial facilities have a lot of industrial control software systems used in various ways. These systems work in all kinds of architectures, starting from the simple “one application on one computer attached to a process” to more complex systems such as client-server-database, multi-tier applications, etc. Being provided by different vendors, there is a problem of managing the applications, developed using various technologies and running on different environments, implying administration problems and many security aspects. The information is spread into many places, this making it difficult to have a global view on the enterprise’s resources. The solution is to have a single software system which to provide functionality for all the enterprise, into a unified manner. Our distributed software applications architecture comes to deal with the problems presented above. The system has three main levels of application:

– The data source, having two main parts: software applications that communicate with the equipment and a connector to the system.
– The server, gathering all the data from the data sources, processing and storing it into the database.
– The client applications, including the interface of the system with the user.
The technology used for developing this system is weboriented.

publication year: 2008

publication details: OPTIM 2008, The 11th International Conference on Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment, Brasov, Romania, pag. 173-178, ISBN: 978-973-635-705-3

Optimize databases for health monitoring systems

authors: Bujdei C., Moraru S.A. & Dan S.

abstract:In this paper, we will study and describe the methods which could be used for optimizing the database and achieving the best performances. The optimizing possibilities was considered for the case of systems which user wireless sensor networks (WSN) inside the systems dedicated for monitoring the health status of the patients. Also, this kind of optimizations could be implemented and for other type of similar systems. The system was created also as an extension at Leonardo da Vinci project, VetTrend.

publication year: 2008

publication details: PETRA 2008, Proceedings of the 1st ACM International Conference on Pervasive Technologies Related to Assistive Environments, ISBN: 978-1-60558-067-8, PETRA 2008, Athens, Greece, July 16-18, 2008

Mobile Phones used inside Monitoring and Control Systems

authors: Bujdei C., Moraru S.A., Dan S. & Kristaly D.M.

abstract: In this paper we will describe how mobile phones can be used inside monitoring and control systems. We will describe the architecture of such a system and the communication ways between the elements that form the system. Also, we will present the advantages of using mobile phones instead of other devices and the optimizations that could be implemented into the system.

keywords: mobile, monitor, control, system.

publication year: 2007

publication details: DAAAM 2007, Annals of DAAAM for 2007 & Proceedings of the 18th International DAAAM Symposium, pag. 119-120, ISSN 1726-9679, ISBN 3-901509-58-5, Editor B. Katalinic, Published by DAAAM International, Vienna, Austria 2007

Lightweight Framework for Passing Data between C++ and Java Distributed Applications

authors: Pelcz A., Moraru S. & Bujdei C.

abstract: In today’s software development domain are many technologies used in the distributed applications development, from standard programming languages to the new web languages. C++ and Java, are two of the most popular programming languages used by software developers. Usually, the components of the distributed applications are developed using the same technology, but sometimes, the components must be developed using different technologies (e.g. Java servers with C++ clients or vice-versa). This is the case where data communication becomes a difficult task because even though these technologies are compatible at network protocol level, data is transported as byte arrays. Modern software development languages provide object-oriented support, and thus, data is organized in objects. Object serialization could be a difficult task for programmers, as they must write mirror classes, containing  functions for packing and unpacking data as byte arrays. A minor change in a class structure or writing a new class  could take large amounts of time. Our solution offers a lightweight framework for data transportation between these applications using TCP/IP or HTTP, as well as a transport class generator for C++ and Java. The framework reduces development time for the data transportation code to minutes.

publication year: 2006

publication details: OPTIM 2006, The 10th International Conference on Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment, Brasov, Romania, pag. 217-220, ISBN: 978-973-635-705-3

System for PhD Students Information Storing and Control

authors: Bujdei C., Moraru S.A. & Sisak F.

abstract: The paper presents  the  system needed  to be developed and  implemented, which  to  satisfy  the requirements  that  supposed  to  allow  the  PhD  students  and  the  persons  from  the  educational environment  to  store  information,  to  view and  analyze  them. The  system access have  to  be  done using  the  Internet  or a  specific LAN  network  (easy  accessibility),  to  be  safe,  easy  to  use,  and  to prove its usability into the educational process. The most advantages of the system are the mobility of users, the possibility to store all the information into a single place, simultaneously access to the information, and the possibility to process the information when it is necessary.

keywords: PhD, student, web, software

publication year: 2006

publication details: ELECTRONICS’ 2006, Sozopol, Bulgaria

Wireless Sensor Networks used for Patient Monitoring

authors: Bujdei C., Dan S. & Pelcz A.

abstract: The main point of  the paper  is  to present  the advantages of using a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) for patient monitoring. In the same time is presented such a system of monitoring and it is made an explanation of the  functionalities with  the ways of collecting data sensed by  the sensors. One of the most advantages of the WSN is the fact that the wires are eliminated. The patients have the  possibility  to  move  free.  From  every  patient  are  collected  different  or  the  same  type  of information  (e.g. body  temperature, blood pressure, pulse, oxygen  level  from  the blood). This all information is stored into a database and it can be viewed, analyzed and processed. Analyzing the
information recorded at one or many patients can help the medical persons to determine the cause of the medical problems.

keywords: wireless, sensor, network, patient, monitoring

publication year: 2006

publication details: ELECTRONICS’ 2006, Sozopol, Bulgaria

Learning Objects Prepared for Mobile Devices

authors: Bujdei C.

abstract: The paper presents one solution for creation the learning objects (LOs) in the scope for being used together with mobile devices compatible Java, especially with the mobile phones. Because of the  low  capabilities  of  the  mobile  devices  (e.g.  power  processing,  memory  available  for  data storing, and screen size) the content and the structure of these learning objects have been very well analyzed.  These  objects  can  not  be  simple  used with  the mobile  devices,  but,  it  is  developed  an application which to permit the user interaction with them. The technology chosen for implementing is  Java.  It has been  taken  this  choice because of  the  fact  that almost all  the mobile phones  from nowadays are compatible with this platform.

keywords: LO, learn, mobile, mLearning, Java

publication year: 2006

publication details: ELECTRONICS’ 2006, Sozopol, Bulgaria

System of Monitoring and Control for the Automation of Industrial Wash Machines

authors: Bujdei C., Perniu L., Truican I. & Caraman M.

abstract: This paper presents the architecture and the functionalities of a system which allows monitoring  and  control  for  the  automation  of  the  industrial wash machines.  The most  important advantage of this type of systems is accessibility, the software application can be executed from any computer connected to Internet or from a mobile device compatible Java (which have the software application  installed). It is not necessarily  that  the user  to be on  the place where  the server  is  for seeing the progress of the industrial process. The software application communicates through the Internet with the Server which commands the PLC for executing different instructions (commands a door, measure the temperature, measure the water level or anything else which can be monitored or controlled). The  communication  between  the  Server  and  PLC  is  realized  through  the  serial  port  of  the computer.

keywords: industrial, monitoring, control, automation, architecture

publication year: 2005

publication details: ELECTRONICS’ 2005, Sozopol, Bulgaria

A System Used to Monitor and Control the Processes

authors: Bujdei C. & Dan S.

abstract: The paper presents  the architecture  and  the  functionalities of a system which allows the monitoring and the controlling of the automation of the  industrial machines, which  build PVC  (Polyvinyl  chloride)  profiles and
cut  them  at  variable  lengths. The most  important  advantage  of  this  type  of systems is the accessibility. The Client application can be executed from any computer connected into the LAN (Local Area Network), where the system is installed.

keywords: PLC, monitoring, control, network

publication year: 2005

publication details: Bulletin of Transilvania University of Brasov, vol. 12 (47), series A1, pag. 345-352, ISSN: 1223-9631

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